How do I find a doi?

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A doi, or Digital Object Identifier, is a unique and permanent identifier for scholarly documents on the web - sort of like a social security number for online scholarship. You may need to locate a doi when you are citing a journal article in APA style, for example. A doi can look like this (10.1177/02711214030230020201) or like this ( There are several ways to locate a doi. Here are a few:

  1. Is it on the article? If you already have the full-text of the article, a doi is often included on the first page of the article. Different publishers place the doi in different areas so you may need to look closely to find it.
  2. Check the database. If you used a library database to access a journal article, a doi is often included in the search result or the record for that article.
  3. Check CrossRef. A not-for-profit organization for scholarly publishing, CrossRef maintains a database containing records for titles, authors, DOIs, and more. Drop your complete reference, article title, or author and publication information into the CrossRef metadata search to find a doi for your document.

For more information about the doi and/or citing documents with a doi in APA style, please see the following: